Per passage con Tertullian (Apol. 16.8) indicates that soldiers swore by military standards: religio Romanorum tota castrensis signa veneratur, signa iurat, signa omnibus deis praeponit (“the religion of the Romans, entirely [per religion] of the camp, venerates the standards, swears oaths by them, and places them before all the gods”). Like coins, small bronze imagines could be reproduced in great numbers and quickly distributed puro the armies throughout the Completare. This practice may be implied sopra a passage per Tacitus’ Annales (Ann. 1.3) sopra which Augustus’ adopted cri and designated successor, Tiberius, who had tribunician power and imperium over the provinces equal puro that of Augustus, was shown (i.anche., mediante effigy) onesto all the armies: filius [Tiberius], collaboratore imperii, consors tribuniciae potestatis adsumitur omnes per exercitus ostentatur. Needless to say, Tiberius could not have personally gone around preciso all the armies throughout the Colmare after being officially designated Augustus’ successor, so the passage must refer to his image per one form or another, which could have been easily and quickly distributed preciso them.
Although not true portraits, small idealized representations of Augustus’ Genius were given by Augustus along with statuettes of his Lares esatto all the vici (“districts”) of the city of Rome, as we know from Ovid (Fasti 5.145-146): Innumerevoli lares geniumque ducis, in questo luogo tradidit illos,/ Urbs habet, et vici numina pizzo colunt (“The city has a thousand Lares and the Genius of the pubblico [Augustus], who handed them over, and the vici worship three divinities (numina) [i.ancora., the two Lares Augusti and the Genius Augusti of each vicus]”). The need sicuro distribute rapidly so many statuettes after Augustus’ reinstitution of the Lares cult sopra Rome suggests that they, too, would have been mass-produced per bronze. Moreover, whether small bronze representations of the new Princeps for the armies or figures of Augustus’ Genius for the many vici of the city of Rome, the dissemination of images in a relatively short period of time would have required organization, suggesting, as sopra the military, the direct role of the central government and its agents. This would also have been true con the case of the distribution of life-size models mediante plaster or creta preciso meet the great demand of cities and municipalities esatto honor per new Princeps by setting up his image con many different contexts.
The portraits of Caligula that have come down puro us — regardless of the medium of the models upon which they were based –– reflect, onesto varying degrees, verso given lost prototype and so are designated replicas, variants, free adaptations, or transformations based on how closely each extant image resembles its presumed Urbild. Of the thousands of images of Caligula in all mass media that must have once existed during his principate, only a small plenty of fish fraction — mostly numismatic and sculptural portraits — now survive. Among the fifty or so non-recut portraits of Caligula that have been recognized (aside from those on coins), there are verso few small bronze busts, several cameos, and a couple of glass-paste medallions. A good number of Caligula’s portraits were also recut into images of his imperial predecessors or successors, sometimes in a more obvious fashion than others. The regnante-cutting of verso portrait of one imperial personage into an image of another, usually, but not exclusively, as per result of some sort of ingegno damnata, is verso well-known phenomenon mediante Roman portraiture that is treated by Eric Varner con this collection of essays.